Many protocols can operate at multiple layers.
Nebulous is Industry’s consensus to where many protocols best reside.

Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)          Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
Encapsulation      OSI Model TCP/IP Model Hardware Protocols/Applications


Data Streams
  




(MTU = Max. Transfer Unit)
7 Application Application Computer
Device





Content Switch
Gateway

HTTPS, TELNET, SMTP, POP3, PGP, IRC, FTP
DHCP, DNS, SNMP, IPAM, SIEM, NNTP, NTP, IMAP4
SMB, RDP, VNC, SSTP, LDAP, MGCP, RTSP SOAP, SCAP
6 Presentation SSL, TLS, ASCII, GIF, MPEG, JPEG, MIME, MIDI
WEP, WPA, WPA2, Kerberos, Hash Functions
TKIP, PKI, Encryption / Decryption Services
5 Session iSNS, NetBIOS, Handshaking link
API's, SIP, SAP, SSH, SOCKS, NFS, DLP
Load Balancers, (Controls persistent connections)
TCP Segment
UDP Datagram

(MTU=1500 bytes)
4 Transport Transport TCP, UDP, AH, DCCP, 802.1x, NAC, RTP, SRTP
SCTP, IPX/SPX, NBF, NAS, SAN, iSCSI, RADIUS, TACACS+
ESP, Defines Ports & directs Send/Resend, Proxy Service
Packet/Datagram 3 Network Internet Routers, Firewalls
Smart Switches
(Logical addressing)
ACL, IPSec, EAP, IGMP, RIP, RIPv2, IGP, EGP, BGP, DMZ
BootP, CARP, OSPF, MPLS, VRRP, EIGRP, IS-IS, WAF
IPv4, IPv6, ARP, APIPA, NAT, PAT, ICMP, PING, Traceroute
Frame = 46 to 1500
Jumbo = 9000 bytes
2 Data Link Network
Access
Access Points
Switches, Bridges, NICs
(Physical addressing)
RARP, SLIP, PPP, PPTP, L2TP, VLAN, VTP, 802.1q, LWAPP
ATM, CSMA/CD(CA), STP, RSTP, IDS/IPS, NIDS/HIDS, WIFI
PAP, CHAP, FDDI, PRI, IEEE 802, Ethernet,
MAC address
Bits
(Transistors)
1 Physical RS-232, Hub, Repeaters
CSU/DSU, Connectors, MDF
Coax / Fiber / Wireless, UPS
10XBase-X, Token Ring, USB, RFID, Bluetooth, Infrared
Z-Wave, Ant+, NFC, Antennas, TDMA, GSM, CDMA, 5G
DSL, ISDN, SONET/SDH, Satellite
                  DEMARCATION POINT
                  ┗━━━ Transmission/Reception              


A Priest Saw Ten Nuns Doing Pushups                         Please Do Not Trust Sales Person’s Answers
All People Seem To Need Data Processing                   Please Do Not Throw Sausage Pizza Away    


YOUTUBE - OSI Reference Model Layers


Introduction to Ethernet - Professor Messer


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   OSI Model Architecture   
  
   OSI Model   
  
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   Gigabit Ethernet (IEEE 802.3ab) Frame Structure   
  
   OSI Model Stacks   
   LARGER
 PICTURE

   OSI Model Functions   
  
   OSI Model Layers   
  
   OSI Media   
  
   OSI Model Functions   
  
   OSI Model Pathways   
  
   OSI Encapsulation   
 

   OSI Model for Networks   
  
   OSI Layers   
  
   OSI Layer Relationships   
  
   OSI-TCP/IP Models   
  
   OSI Mapping   
 

Frame
  

Preamble
(7 bytes)
     Destination
Address
(6 bytes)
          Frame
Type
(2 bytes)
                                               Frame
Check
Sequence
(4 bytes)
                MAC      MAC                                                                     
 
Start-of-
Frame
Delimiter
(1 byte)
          
Source
Address
(6 bytes)

                             
Data
(n-bytes)


                       



Routers separate broadcast domains

Switches separate collision domains

Broadcast Domains and Collision Domains

Goodput = Data without overhead protocol bits


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